Sea freight – types, rules, features
Sea transportation is an important way of transporting various goods: equipment, products, bulky goods, bulk and life-threatening substances. Such delivery of goods plays an important role in the development of the planet’s economy to this day. About 90% of goods are transported from one place in the world to another by sea vessels.
Varieties of sea freight
Depending on the geography, there are two main types: external and internal transportation.
By type of cargo, they are classified into:
- Sea freight is a type of transportation by sea, when an agreement is signed between the owner of the vessel and the person who wants to rent it for a certain number of transportation.
- Ro-ro transportation – takes place on ships with special equipment in the form of an inclined platform, with the help of which any transport can call on board.
“Door-to-door” transportation – the client pays the cost of delivery of the goods, and everything else is handled by the transport company: equipment rental, hiring specialists, border crossing, paperwork.
Container shipping is the most common way.
Bulk cargo transportation is the transportation of bulk materials: coal, ore, fertilizers, sand, which are “piled” on board or into a special container on the ship.
These varieties are the most widespread.
Basic rules of sea freight
For optimal and safe unloading and loading of goods, correct distribution of goods on board and in the holds of ships, a number of mandatory rules have been invented:
- Transportation of goods takes place only in serviceable containers that are not damaged or deformed;
- Containers undergo strict external and internal surface checks;
- Before placing the cargo, a plan is drawn up for its placement and securing;
- Loads are placed only on a flat, solid surface of a platform or trailer, and loaded into a container, provided that the doors open and close freely from the end;
- The goods are placed in accordance with the markings on them;
- After the ship has left the port, the placed cargo and the quality of their fastening are checked twice a day;
Goods are accepted at the port only with special documents.
Transportation by sea is carried out in accordance with the “Rules for the carriage of goods by sea”.
Features of shipping
With the help of special technologies, it is possible to accurately calculate the date and time of cargo delivery by sea on a vessel with a sufficiently strong structure, which is also an indicator of the safety of such transportation. And the low cost and the ability to deliver large-sized goods over long distances along flexible routes makes this type of transportation very profitable.