Two broad political coalitions of Democrats and Republicans, differing in geography and ideology, dominate American politics.
Democratic Party of the United States – creation
The Democratic Party was founded by Jefferson in 1792 to defend the rights of individual states as opposed to the federalist centralization policy. Its founder was one of the founders of the “Declaration of Independence” in 1776. This party, originally known as the “Democratic Republicans” and then from 1828 as the Democratic, was in power almost constantly from 1800 to 1860. During the Civil War 1861-1865 it began to be identified with the defeated Confederation of the Southern States, a region that has become a powerful stronghold of the party, sending senators and representatives of tough conservative views into power.
From 1865 to 1920, a completely different Democratic Party emerged in the northeastern coastal states. She found support from the Irish, Poles, Italians, Catholics, Jews and other immigrants who flooded the industrial cities along the Atlantic coast during this period.
The Great Depression
During the Great Depression of the 30s. the party, led by Roosevelt, bolstered this support through a “new course” of social reform and government regulation. This policy led to an increase in supporters of the Democratic Party, which overshadowed the Republicans who were in power from 1861 to 1932 both regionally and in Congress.
From 1933 to 1968, the Democratic Party secured presidential rule to its candidates for 28 years out of 36 possible. And all these years, with the exception of four, she controlled both houses of Congress. The northeastern wing of the party, which created a whole network of organizations dealing with urban issues as well as workers’ problems, has been in the lead all these years. It supported the policy of liberalism aimed at expanding the influence of the federal government. However, in the 60s. the northeast wing’s advocacy for civil rights reform, desegregation, equal opportunity, and black voting rights sparked opposition from the southern conservative wing known as the dixicrates or cotton weevils.
In the presidential election, Republican candidates regularly began to receive support from voters in the southern states. And in Congress, the “yellow” or “corrupt” Democrats (“dixicrates”) began to express their disagreement on social issues with the presidents of the Democratic Party Kennedy and Johnson. In the late 60s. the internal political division was further widened by the emergence of opposition opposing the war in Vietnam.
Democratizing the Party
The Democratic Party began to democratize the party’s organizational system and selection procedures through primary elections, in which anyone who considered themselves party supporters could take part. The closed-door pre-election party meeting and the open-door state meeting were replaced by the election procedure itself.
The Democratic Party consists of at least five significant factions. The first, although it has diminished, is still quite numerous – it is the southern conservative or neoliberal faction, which is also considered the “wing of the Congress.” The group of Northern New Deal liberals, known as the “presidential wing,” is more numerous and traditionally in the lead.
The southern “wing of Congress”, with approximately 12 senators and 40 representatives, hosts the Conservative Democratic Forums (CDF). The opinion of this group with unstable political views sometimes coincides with the opinion of the Republicans on various issues of an economic, social and defense nature. Southern conservatives and moderate liberals also work together on the powerful Democratic Leadership Council (DSL), created in 1985.
The northern “presidential wing” is very active in intervening in the economic and social spheres, remaining restrained in defense matters. It adheres to the principles adopted by Americans for Democracy, which was founded in 1947.
The predecessors of the populists of the Midwest were members of the People’s Party, formed in the 90s. XIX century. and the Progressive Party, which existed during the interwar years and represented the interests of small farmers.